“Cyberattacks on public and private entities in the U.S. occur every 39 seconds. The Microsoft Digital Defense Report for 2020 found that most attacks by nation states come from China, Russia, North Korea, and Iran.

“But lack of transparency is a major challenge when it comes to holding these nations accountable through international law.

“‘It’s much, much harder to penetrate what’s going on with an adversary’s cyber capabilities,’ Matthew Waxman, an expert in international law and cybersecurity with the Council on Foreign Relation, told Newsweek. ‘Even if you are able to penetrate that secrecy, you’re going to be reluctant as an intelligence agency to put forward publicly what you’ve found…'”

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