“‘I don’t want to give an impression that we bestowed the answer key for dealing with such a challenging and unprecedented crisis,’ Monaco said. ‘But the idea was to identify issues that would say these are the kinds of things you need to be planning for and thinking about now.’

“What does it mean for the federal government to be prepared? ‘Oftentimes, the gauge is no mistakes, no criticism, just complete smooth sailing,’ Monaco said. “That to me is not the definition of what it means to be prepared.’

“She argued that preparation means planning ahead of a crisis, and having structures and organizations that can move quickly and principles that guide decision-making. ‘I think it’s about trying as best to minimize the chaos, particularly at the beginning,” she said…'”

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